PHP header函数详细用法
2012-7-29 21:28 Sunday  

分类: PHP 标签: application text vnd audio video 评论(54) 浏览(28522)

PHP 中 header()函数的作用是给客户端发送头信息。

什么是头信息?
这里只作简单解释,详细的自己看http协议。
在 HTTP协议中,服务器端的回答(response)内容包括两部分:头信息(header) 和 体内容,这里的头信息不是HTML中的<head></head>部分,同样,体内容也不是<BODY>< /BODY>。头信息是用户看不见的,里面包含了很多项,包括:服务器信息、日期、内容的长度等。而体内容就是整个HTML,也就是你所能看见的全 部东西。

头信息有什么用呢?
头信息的作用很多,最主要的有下面几个:

1、跳转:当浏览器接受到头信息中的 Location: xxxx 后,就会自动跳转到 xxxx 指向的URL地址,这点有点类似用 js 写跳转。但是这个跳转只有浏览器知道,不管体内容里有没有东西,用户都看不到。

2、指定网页的内容: 同样一个XML文件,如果头信息中指定:Content-type: application/xml 的话,浏览器会将其按照XML文件格式解析。但是,如果头信息中是:Content-type: text/xml 的话,浏览器就会将其看作存文本解析。(浏览器不是按照扩展名解析文件的)

3、附件: 不知道大家有没有注意,有些时候在一些网站下载东西,点下载连接以后,结果浏览器将这个附件当成网页打开 了,里面显示的都是乱码,这个问题也和头信息有关。有时候浏览器根据Content-type 来判断是打开还是保存,这样有时就会判断错误(主要是网站设计者忘记写Content-type)。其实,还有一个可以来指定该内容为附件、需要保存,这 个就是:Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="xxxxx"

在PHP中如何写?
1、跳转
header("Location: http://www.phpec.org/");

2、指定内容:
header('Content-type: application/pdf');

3、附件:
// 指定内容为附件
header('Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="downloaded.pdf"');
// 打开文件,并输出
readfile('original.pdf');

最 后要提醒大家注意一点,所有头信息都必须在体内容之前,如果一旦有任何输出了的话,header函数写的 头信息就没用了。比如,在文件最开头的<?php 处,如果前面有空格或者有空行,那header函数就没用了(其实可以通过设置:output_buffer来解决,anyway),为什么这样,可以看 看HTTP协议,很简单。

定义和用法

header() 函数向客户端发送原始的 HTTP 报头。

认识到一点很重要,即必须在任何实际的输出被发送之前调用 header() 函数(在 PHP 4 以及更高的版本中,您可以使用输出缓存来解决此问题):

<html>

<?php

// 结果出错

// 在调用 header() 之前已存在输出

header('Location: http://www.example.com/');

?>

语法

header(string,replace,http_response_code)

参数 描述
string 必需。规定要发送的报头字符串。
replace

可选。指示该报头是否替换之前的报头,或添加第二个报头。

默认是 true(替换)。false(允许相同类型的多个报头)。

http_response_code 可选。把 HTTP 响应代码强制为指定的值。(PHP 4 以及更高版本可用)

提示和注释

注释:从 PHP 4.4 之后,该函数防止一次发送多个报头。这是对头部注入攻击的保护措施。

例子

例子 1

<?php

// Date in the past

header("Expires: Mon, 26 Jul 1997 05:00:00 GMT");

header("Cache-Control: no-cache");

header("Pragma: no-cache");

?>

<html>

<body>

...

...

注释:用户可能会设置一些选项来更改浏览器的默认缓存设置。通过发送上面的报头,您可以覆盖任何这些设置,强制浏览器不进行缓存!

例子 2

提示用户保存一个生成的 PDF 文件(Content-Disposition 报头用于提供一个推荐的文件名,并强制浏览器显示保存对话框):

<?php

header("Content-type:application/pdf");

// 文件将被称为 downloaded.pdf

header("Content-Disposition:attachment;filename='downloaded.pdf'");

// PDF 源在 original.pdf 中

readfile("original.pdf");

?>

<html>

<body>

<?php
header('Content-type: application/image/pjpeg');//输出的类型
header('Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="downloaded.jpg"'); //下载显示的名字,注意格式
readfile('my.jpg');
// 并将这个文件以前面header发送信息设定的类型输出,从而会弹出一个下载框
// 就是把服务器上的my.jpg下载下来,下载显示和保存的名字默认是downloaded.jpg
?> 附带文档类型及服务器响应类别
一共两个版本.
文档类型   和 服务器响应HTTP的类型
上面的这个可以在上传文件的类型中对应上.下面的差了点.(原文下面的是用来写在文件头上的.来确定该文件是什么类型.)

    'chm'=>'application/octet-stream',
    'ppt'=>'application/vnd.ms-powerpoint',
    'xls'=>'application/vnd.ms-excel',
    'doc'=>'application/msword',
    'exe'=>'application/octet-stream',
    'rar'=>'application/octet-stream',
    'js'=>"javascrīpt/js",
    'css'=>"text/css",
    'hqx'=>"application/mac-binhex40",
    'bin'=>"application/octet-stream",
    'oda'=>"application/oda",
    'pdf'=>"application/pdf",
    'ai'=>"application/postsrcipt",
    'eps'=>"application/postsrcipt",
    'es'=>"application/postsrcipt",
    'rtf'=>"application/rtf",
    'mif'=>"application/x-mif",
    'csh'=>"application/x-csh",
    'dvi'=>"application/x-dvi",
    'hdf'=>"application/x-hdf",
    'nc'=>"application/x-netcdf",
    'cdf'=>"application/x-netcdf",
    'latex'=>"application/x-latex",
    'ts'=>"application/x-troll-ts",
    'src'=>"application/x-wais-source",
    'zip'=>"application/zip",
    'bcpio'=>"application/x-bcpio",
    'cpio'=>"application/x-cpio",
    'gtar'=>"application/x-gtar",
    'shar'=>"application/x-shar",
    'sv4cpio'=>"application/x-sv4cpio",
    'sv4crc'=>"application/x-sv4crc",
    'tar'=>"application/x-tar",
    'ustar'=>"application/x-ustar",
    'man'=>"application/x-troff-man",
    'sh'=>"application/x-sh",
    'tcl'=>"application/x-tcl",
    'tex'=>"application/x-tex",
    'texi'=>"application/x-texinfo",
    'texinfo'=>"application/x-texinfo",
    't'=>"application/x-troff",
    'tr'=>"application/x-troff",
    'roff'=>"application/x-troff",
    'shar'=>"application/x-shar",
    'me'=>"application/x-troll-me",
    'ts'=>"application/x-troll-ts",
    'gif'=>"image/gif",
    'jpeg'=>"image/pjpeg",
    'jpg'=>"image/pjpeg",
    'jpe'=>"image/pjpeg",
    'ras'=>"image/x-cmu-raster",
    'pbm'=>"image/x-portable-bitmap",
    'ppm'=>"image/x-portable-pixmap",
    'xbm'=>"image/x-xbitmap",
    'xwd'=>"image/x-xwindowdump",
    'ief'=>"image/ief",
    'tif'=>"image/tiff",
    'tiff'=>"image/tiff",
    'pnm'=>"image/x-portable-anymap",
    'pgm'=>"image/x-portable-graymap",
    'rgb'=>"image/x-rgb",
    'xpm'=>"image/x-xpixmap",
    'txt'=>"text/plain",
    'c'=>"text/plain",
    'cc'=>"text/plain",
    'h'=>"text/plain",
    'html'=>"text/html",
    'htm'=>"text/html",
    'htl'=>"text/html",
    'rtx'=>"text/richtext",
    'etx'=>"text/x-setext",
    'tsv'=>"text/tab-separated-values",
    'mpeg'=>"video/mpeg",
    'mpg'=>"video/mpeg",
    'mpe'=>"video/mpeg",
    'avi'=>"video/x-msvideo",
    'qt'=>"video/quicktime",
    'mov'=>"video/quicktime",
    'moov'=>"video/quicktime",
    'movie'=>"video/x-sgi-movie",
    'au'=>"audio/basic",
    'snd'=>"audio/basic",
    'wav'=>"audio/x-wav",
    'aif'=>"audio/x-aiff",
    'aiff'=>"audio/x-aiff",
    'aifc'=>"audio/x-aiff",
    'swf'=>"application/x-shockwave-flash"
    'myz'=>"application/myz"


".*"="application/octet-stream"
".001"="application/x-001"
".301"="application/x-301"
".323"="text/h323"
".906"="application/x-906"
".907"="drawing/907"
".a11"="application/x-a11"
".acp"="audio/x-mei-aac"
".ai"="application/postscript"
".aif"="audio/aiff"
".aifc"="audio/aiff"
".aiff"="audio/aiff"
".anv"="application/x-anv"
".asa"="text/asa"
".asf"="video/x-ms-asf"
".asp"="text/asp"
".asx"="video/x-ms-asf"
".au"="audio/basic"
".avi"="video/avi"
".awf"="application/vnd.adobe.workflow"
".biz"="text/xml"
".bmp"="application/x-bmp"
".bot"="application/x-bot"
".c4t"="application/x-c4t"
".c90"="application/x-c90"
".cal"="application/x-cals"
".cat"="application/vnd.ms-pki.seccat"
".cdf"="application/x-netcdf"
".cdr"="application/x-cdr"
".cel"="application/x-cel"
".cer"="application/x-x509-ca-cert"
".cg4"="application/x-g4"
".cgm"="application/x-cgm"
".cit"="application/x-cit"
".class"="java/*"
".cml"="text/xml"
".cmp"="application/x-cmp"
".cmx"="application/x-cmx"
".cot"="application/x-cot"
".crl"="application/pkix-crl"
".crt"="application/x-x509-ca-cert"
".csi"="application/x-csi"
".css"="text/css"
".cut"="application/x-cut"
".dbf"="application/x-dbf"
".dbm"="application/x-dbm"
".dbx"="application/x-dbx"
".dcd"="text/xml"
".dcx"="application/x-dcx"
".der"="application/x-x509-ca-cert"
".dgn"="application/x-dgn"
".dib"="application/x-dib"
".dll"="application/x-msdownload"
".doc"="application/msword"
".dot"="application/msword"
".drw"="application/x-drw"
".dtd"="text/xml"
".dwf"="Model/vnd.dwf"
".dwf"="application/x-dwf"
".dwg"="application/x-dwg"
".dxb"="application/x-dxb"
".dxf"="application/x-dxf"
".edn"="application/vnd.adobe.edn"
".emf"="application/x-emf"
".eml"="message/rfc822"
".ent"="text/xml"
".epi"="application/x-epi"
".eps"="application/x-ps"
".eps"="application/postscript"
".etd"="application/x-ebx"
".exe"="application/x-msdownload"
".fax"="image/fax"
".fdf"="application/vnd.fdf"
".fif"="application/fractals"
".fo"="text/xml"
".frm"="application/x-frm"
".g4"="application/x-g4"
".gbr"="application/x-gbr"
".gcd"="application/x-gcd"
".gif"="image/gif"
".gl2"="application/x-gl2"
".gp4"="application/x-gp4"
".hgl"="application/x-hgl"
".hmr"="application/x-hmr"
".hpg"="application/x-hpgl"
".hpl"="application/x-hpl"
".hqx"="application/mac-binhex40"
".hrf"="application/x-hrf"
".hta"="application/hta"
".htc"="text/x-component"
".htm"="text/html"
".html"="text/html"
".htt"="text/webviewhtml"
".htx"="text/html"
".icb"="application/x-icb"
".ico"="image/x-icon"
".ico"="application/x-ico"
".iff"="application/x-iff"
".ig4"="application/x-g4"
".igs"="application/x-igs"
".iii"="application/x-iphone"
".img"="application/x-img"
".ins"="application/x-internet-signup"
".isp"="application/x-internet-signup"
".IVF"="video/x-ivf"
".java"="java/*"
".jfif"="image/jpeg"
".jpe"="image/jpeg"
".jpe"="application/x-jpe"
".jpeg"="image/jpeg"
".jpg"="image/jpeg"
".jpg"="application/x-jpg"
".js"="application/x-javascript"
".jsp"="text/html"
".la1"="audio/x-liquid-file"
".lar"="application/x-laplayer-reg"
".latex"="application/x-latex"
".lavs"="audio/x-liquid-secure"
".lbm"="application/x-lbm"
".lmsff"="audio/x-la-lms"
".ls"="application/x-javascript"
".ltr"="application/x-ltr"
".m1v"="video/x-mpeg"
".m2v"="video/x-mpeg"
".m3u"="audio/mpegurl"
".m4e"="video/mpeg4"
".mac"="application/x-mac"
".man"="application/x-troff-man"
".math"="text/xml"
".mdb"="application/msaccess"
".mdb"="application/x-mdb"
".mfp"="application/x-shockwave-flash"
".mht"="message/rfc822"
".mhtml"="message/rfc822"
".mi"="application/x-mi"
".mid"="audio/mid"
".midi"="audio/mid"
".mil"="application/x-mil"
".mml"="text/xml"
".mnd"="audio/x-musicnet-download"
".mns"="audio/x-musicnet-stream"
".mocha"="application/x-javascript"
".movie"="video/x-sgi-movie"
".mp1"="audio/mp1"
".mp2"="audio/mp2"
".mp2v"="video/mpeg"
".mp3"="audio/mp3"
".mp4"="video/mpeg4"
".mpa"="video/x-mpg"
".mpd"="application/vnd.ms-project"
".mpe"="video/x-mpeg"
".mpeg"="video/mpg"
".mpg"="video/mpg"
".mpga"="audio/rn-mpeg"
".mpp"="application/vnd.ms-project"
".mps"="video/x-mpeg"
".mpt"="application/vnd.ms-project"
".mpv"="video/mpg"
".mpv2"="video/mpeg"
".mpw"="application/vnd.ms-project"
".mpx"="application/vnd.ms-project"
".mtx"="text/xml"
".mxp"="application/x-mmxp"
".net"="image/pnetvue"
".nrf"="application/x-nrf"
".nws"="message/rfc822"
".odc"="text/x-ms-odc"
".out"="application/x-out"
".p10"="application/pkcs10"
".p12"="application/x-pkcs12"
".p7b"="application/x-pkcs7-certificates"
".p7c"="application/pkcs7-mime"
".p7m"="application/pkcs7-mime"
".p7r"="application/x-pkcs7-certreqresp"
".p7s"="application/pkcs7-signature"
".pc5"="application/x-pc5"
".pci"="application/x-pci"
".pcl"="application/x-pcl"
".pcx"="application/x-pcx"
".pdf"="application/pdf"
".pdf"="application/pdf"
".pdx"="application/vnd.adobe.pdx"
".pfx"="application/x-pkcs12"
".pgl"="application/x-pgl"
".pic"="application/x-pic"
".pko"="application/vnd.ms-pki.pko"
".pl"="application/x-perl"
".plg"="text/html"
".pls"="audio/scpls"
".plt"="application/x-plt"
".png"="image/png"
".png"="application/x-png"
".pot"="application/vnd.ms-powerpoint"
".ppa"="application/vnd.ms-powerpoint"
".ppm"="application/x-ppm"
".pps"="application/vnd.ms-powerpoint"
".ppt"="application/vnd.ms-powerpoint"
".ppt"="application/x-ppt"
".pr"="application/x-pr"
".prf"="application/pics-rules"
".prn"="application/x-prn"
".prt"="application/x-prt"
".ps"="application/x-ps"
".ps"="application/postscript"
".ptn"="application/x-ptn"
".pwz"="application/vnd.ms-powerpoint"
".r3t"="text/vnd.rn-realtext3d"
".ra"="audio/vnd.rn-realaudio"
".ram"="audio/x-pn-realaudio"
".ras"="application/x-ras"
".rat"="application/rat-file"
".rdf"="text/xml"
".rec"="application/vnd.rn-recording"
".red"="application/x-red"
".rgb"="application/x-rgb"
".rjs"="application/vnd.rn-realsystem-rjs"
".rjt"="application/vnd.rn-realsystem-rjt"
".rlc"="application/x-rlc"
".rle"="application/x-rle"
".rm"="application/vnd.rn-realmedia"
".rmf"="application/vnd.adobe.rmf"
".rmi"="audio/mid"
".rmj"="application/vnd.rn-realsystem-rmj"
".rmm"="audio/x-pn-realaudio"
".rmp"="application/vnd.rn-rn_music_package"
".rms"="application/vnd.rn-realmedia-secure"
".rmvb"="application/vnd.rn-realmedia-vbr"
".rmx"="application/vnd.rn-realsystem-rmx"
".rnx"="application/vnd.rn-realplayer"
".rp"="image/vnd.rn-realpix"
".rpm"="audio/x-pn-realaudio-plugin"
".rsml"="application/vnd.rn-rsml"
".rt"="text/vnd.rn-realtext"
".rtf"="application/msword"
".rtf"="application/x-rtf"
".rv"="video/vnd.rn-realvideo"
".sam"="application/x-sam"
".sat"="application/x-sat"
".sdp"="application/sdp"
".sdw"="application/x-sdw"
".sit"="application/x-stuffit"
".slb"="application/x-slb"
".sld"="application/x-sld"
".slk"="drawing/x-slk"
".smi"="application/smil"
".smil"="application/smil"
".smk"="application/x-smk"
".snd"="audio/basic"
".sol"="text/plain"
".sor"="text/plain"
".spc"="application/x-pkcs7-certificates"
".spl"="application/futuresplash"
".spp"="text/xml"
".ssm"="application/streamingmedia"
".sst"="application/vnd.ms-pki.certstore"
".stl"="application/vnd.ms-pki.stl"
".stm"="text/html"
".sty"="application/x-sty"
".svg"="text/xml"
".swf"="application/x-shockwave-flash"
".tdf"="application/x-tdf"
".tg4"="application/x-tg4"
".tga"="application/x-tga"
".tif"="image/tiff"
".tif"="application/x-tif"
".tiff"="image/tiff"
".tld"="text/xml"
".top"="drawing/x-top"
".torrent"="application/x-bittorrent"
".tsd"="text/xml"
".txt"="text/plain"
".uin"="application/x-icq"
".uls"="text/iuls"
".vcf"="text/x-vcard"
".vda"="application/x-vda"
".vdx"="application/vnd.visio"
".vml"="text/xml"
".vpg"="application/x-vpeg005"
".vsd"="application/vnd.visio"
".vsd"="application/x-vsd"
".vss"="application/vnd.visio"
".vst"="application/vnd.visio"
".vst"="application/x-vst"
".vsw"="application/vnd.visio"
".vsx"="application/vnd.visio"
".vtx"="application/vnd.visio"
".vxml"="text/xml"
".wav"="audio/wav"
".wax"="audio/x-ms-wax"
".wb1"="application/x-wb1"
".wb2"="application/x-wb2"
".wb3"="application/x-wb3"
".wbmp"="image/vnd.wap.wbmp"
".wiz"="application/msword"
".wk3"="application/x-wk3"
".wk4"="application/x-wk4"
".wkq"="application/x-wkq"
".wks"="application/x-wks"
".wm"="video/x-ms-wm"
".wma"="audio/x-ms-wma"
".wmd"="application/x-ms-wmd"
".wmf"="application/x-wmf"
".wml"="text/vnd.wap.wml"
".wmv"="video/x-ms-wmv"
".wmx"="video/x-ms-wmx"
".wmz"="application/x-ms-wmz"
".wp6"="application/x-wp6"
".wpd"="application/x-wpd"
".wpg"="application/x-wpg"
".wpl"="application/vnd.ms-wpl"
".wq1"="application/x-wq1"
".wr1"="application/x-wr1"
".wri"="application/x-wri"
".wrk"="application/x-wrk"
".ws"="application/x-ws"
".ws2"="application/x-ws"
".wsc"="text/scriptlet"
".wsdl"="text/xml"
".wvx"="video/x-ms-wvx"
".xdp"="application/vnd.adobe.xdp"
".xdr"="text/xml"
".xfd"="application/vnd.adobe.xfd"
".xfdf"="application/vnd.adobe.xfdf"
".xhtml"="text/html"
".xls"="application/vnd.ms-excel"
".xls"="application/x-xls"
".xlw"="application/x-xlw"
".xml"="text/xml"
".xpl"="audio/scpls"
".xq"="text/xml"
".xql"="text/xml"
".xquery"="text/xml"
".xsd"="text/xml"
".xsl"="text/xml"
".xslt"="text/xml"
".xwd"="application/x-xwd"
".x_b"="application/x-x_b"
".x_t"="application/x-x_t"
".myz"="application/myz"

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